enthaltend, Die übrigen Melodien von den elfzeiligen an, nebst Anhang und Nachlese, sowie das chronologische Verzeichnis der Erfinder von Melodien und alphabetische Register der Melodien, Schlüßband: Chronologisches Verzeichnis der benutzten Gesang-, Melodien- und Choralbücher, und die letzten Nachträge, Complete sets of all four-part Bach chorale settings, The Chorales of Bach's St. Matthew Passion. The words are often sung to a rhyming scheme and are in a strophic form (t… true. OR 2. Later composers of the chorale prelude include Johannes Brahms, for example in his Eleven Chorale Preludes, and Max Reger who composed many examples, including Wie schön leucht' uns der Morgenstern (based on the hymn by Philipp Nicolai). One thing is for certain: the answer is not 371 or 389. "24 Bach Chorales for Saxophone Quartet by J.S. The Fantasia on Komm, heiliger Geist is a fierce whirlwind: here the task is to convey the breathless agitation of constant sixteenth-note motion, yet present clearly the gestures that define that motion. Hold click (Mac) or right click (Windows) on the blue links below. In certain modern usage, this term may include classical settings of such hymns and works of a similar character. This is evident, because Bach was born in a part of Germany that was dominated by Lutheranism. SING and SIGN Choir and Orchestra. This is arguably the best known of Bach’s cantatas (fans of Cantata 140, Wachet auf might disagree, but it would certainly be a close contest). Bach was a Lutheran—he was “ours,” and we claimed him, though we knew little about him beyond the chorale harmonizations we sang from the Lutheran hymnal. The German word Choral, which was originally used to describe Latin plainchant melodies, was first applied to the Lutheran hymn only in the later sixteenth century. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod... Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der von uns... Christian dance, electronic, and techno artists, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lutheran_chorale&oldid=996935385, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles needing additional references from September 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles to be expanded from October 2017, Articles needing more viewpoints from October 2017, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 07:02. However, two unfortunate facts regarding the Dietel collection remain. Although each chorale contains its own unique characteristics, most chorales are identifiable by some similar musical and textual features. Configure your browser to play MIDI fles with a plug-in or external application. (BWV 229.2), which is certainly chorale–like (apart from the rather disjunct melodic contour), but which features a melody that is almost certainly composed by Bach himself and, thus, is not taken from the Lutheran chorale tradition. He was also schooled in the Lutheran … These "improvements" are clearly shown in a comparison of Breitkopf settings against their appearances in Bach’s original manuscripts. In modern times the chorale is considered to be a musical setting, usually polyphonic, of a traditional religious text. cantatas, passions, etc.) 9) A third setting from the St. Mark Passion Pasticcio ("O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid") may very well have been composed by Bach, though it has not yet been assigned a BWV number. All of these happenings found their basis in the Word of God and the Teachings of Martin Luther. true. For the literary genre, see, Hymnody of continental Europe § Reformation, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im ersten Jahrhunderte der Kirchenverbesserung, Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im siebzehnten Jahrhunderte, Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im achtzehnten Jahrhunderte, Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder, Die siebenzeiligen und jambischen achtzeiligen Melodien, Die Melodien von den achtzeiligen trochäischen bis zu den zehnzeiligen inkl. Lutheran musical worship is structured around - hymns known as -, which are specific to a particular service. [1], In the modern era, many Lutheran hymns are used in Protestant worship, sometimes sung in four-part harmony. Bach's many chorale preludes are the best-known examples of the form. -congregational-chorales. Bach in the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript (SA 818). The fact that scholars are almost certain that Dietel copied these directly from original manuscripts of large choral works (e.g. =BWV 414 (=Riemenschneider 148). A chorale is a melody to which a hymn is sung by a congregation in a German Protestant Church service. The first is a collection of 149 Bach chorales handwritten by Ludwig Dietel around the year 1735 in Leipzig when Dietel was a student in Bach’s Thomasschule. Today, 371 of Bach used these four-part chorales in larger works, such as cantatas or oratorios. Help listening to and downloading MIDI files. The vast majority of his sacred and choral compositional output, including his well-known Cantatas and Passions, came during the years he served in Leipzig at the churches of St. Nicholas and St. Thomas (1723-50). The answer most likely falls somewhere between 390 and 420 depending on how they are counted. The word “chorale” can apply to the melodic line alone or the combination of both the melody and text. So how many extant chorales are there? These individual chorales have survived by way of two important secondary sources. Amazon.de/musik: Mehl, Maurice, Bach, J.S. And here the complications begin. Bach took considerable editorial liberties, perhaps for the purpose of enhancing his late father’s legacy. Bach’s chorales are strictly choral arrangements of well-known hymn tunes adorned with elaborate harmony; he never composed an original chorale. The answer to this question is somewhere in the neighborhood of 228, a number that only slightly reaches half of the overall total! All midi files compressed. First, it’s important to clarify that we’re trying to determine the number of extant chorale settings. [6], Scholarship regarding Lutheran chorales intensified from the 19th century. The authenticity of this setting from the St. Mark Pasticcio is dubious. Johann Sebastian Bach 's earliest extant compositions, works for organ which he possibly wrote before his fifteenth birthday, include the chorales BWV 700, 724, 1091, 1094, 1097, 1112, 1113 and 1119. So how many Bach four–part chorales are there? =BWV 416. Today, many of the Lutheran chorales are familiar as hymns used in Protestant churches, sung in four-voice harmony. The typical four-part setting of a chorale, in which the sopranos (and the congregation) sing the melody along with three lower voices, is known as a chorale harmonization. 18th century [8], This article is about a Lutheran music genre. On the other hand, if we were to tweak the question just a bit and ask how many entirely unique chorale settings were most certainly composed (mostly) by Bach, thereby eliminating 1) instances of Bach himself reusing a setting, 2) instances of duplicate appearances in the Schmieder catalogue, 3) other instances of variant settings, 4) the two instances of Bach using settings from the NLGB, 5) the four settings that are (at least to a significant degree) attributed to other composers, and 6) the two St. Mark Pasticcio settings of dubious authenticity, then 20 settings can be eliminated, lowering the total from 420 to 400. Chorales tend to be simple and singable tunes. [3] These included the Achtliederbuch (known as the first Lutheran hymnal) and the Erfurt Enchiridion (both with unaccompanied melodic settings), as well as Johann Walter's Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn, the first to contain part song settings of Lutheran hymns. A secondary problem with this Breitkopf document is the lack of text and contextual information (much like the Dietel). J. S. Bach wrote over 200 church cantatas. Bach used a revision of a setting by Daniel Vetter for his Cantata 8 from September 1724. What seems to be a straightforward question is, in reality, rather complicated. Bach in three early manuscripts, including the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript (SA 818). BWV 416, to which Riemenschneider 47 corresponds, is the later version. First, Dietel included no original texts or background information for each chorale. [citation needed], The musicologist Carl von Winterfeld published three volumes of Der evangelische Kirchengesang und sein Verhältniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes (Evangelical church-song and its relation to the art of composition) from 1843 to 1847. This figure includes six of the nine duplicates mentioned in point 1) above, as well as points 2), 4), 5), 8) and 9). Chorale definition, a hymn, especially one with strong harmonization: a Bach chorale. Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works Sorted by Title : This section of the Bach Cantatas Website (BCW) provides a comprehensive list of all the chorale melodies [hereafter referred to simply as ‘CM’s] in Bach’s oeuvre. Choral versions of all these chorales may be found on YouTube by searching for the BWV number. Complete Book of Bach Chorales (Archive Edition): Amazon.de: Silverman, Jerry: Fremdsprachige Bücher Wählen Sie Ihre Cookie-Einstellungen Wir verwenden Cookies und ähnliche Tools, um Ihr Einkaufserlebnis zu verbessern, um unsere Dienste anzubieten, um zu verstehen, wie die Kunden unsere Dienste nutzen, damit wir Verbesserungen vornehmen können, und um Werbung anzuzeigen. Recording of Lutheran Chorale followed by Chorale Prelude. DeepBach: a Steerable Model for Bach chorales generation Ga etan Hadjeres 1;2, Fran˘cois Pachet 1 Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Paris 2 LIP6, Universit e Pierre et Marie Curie gaetan.hadjeres@etu-upmc.fr pachetcsl@gmail.com Abstract. [click], we test our workflow on Bach chorales, finding out that our re-trained results are 93.5% accurate, meaning there are 6.5% results that are different from the expert, and among them some of these are still legitimate analyses because there are sometimes multiple correct analyses in chord labeling. • Melodies should be something easy to sing with a recognisable tune. DAY 2: 6 HOURS PASSION – with fervour. Bewertung, Martin Luther Chorales. Bach and the Cantata: An Overview. 5) One setting (BWV 8.6) is a revision of a chorale setting by Daniel Vetter. Below is a table summarizing these settings. In the 20th century, important contributions to the genre were made by Hugo Distler and Ernst Pepping. But even all of these 192 do not attain a consistent level of authenticity. One thing is for certain: the answer is not 371 or 389. • Bach Chorales are meant to be sung by four part harmony – SATB, originally for Lutheran churches in Germany. First, it’s important to clarify that we’re trying to determine the number of extant chorale settings. [7], Johannes Zahn published Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder (the tunes of the German Evangelical hymns) in six volumes from 1889 to 1893. Collections of Chorale-Settings by J. S. Bach; Manuscript collections 149 Chorales (Dittel, 1734-35) 3 Choräle zu Trauungen (1734-38) 135 Chorales (Fasch, 1762) 383 Chorales (1770-89) Published collections 371 Vierstimmige Choralgesänge (1784-87) 319 Mehrstimmige Choralgesänge und geistliche Arien (1850 … However, prioritizing the Dietel over the Breitkopf settings requires careful engagement with the errors that Dietel made. What seems to be a straightforward question is, in reality, rather complicated. See more. [1][4], Luther and his contemporaries referred to these vernacular hymns as geistliche Lieder (spiritual songs), Psalmen (psalms), christliche Lieder (Christian songs), and geistliche (or christliche) Gesänge or Kirchengesänge. It is important to know how these 192 chorales have survived to understand why this is. 7) Two settings (BWV 145a and BWV 272) are attributed to Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript (SA 818). Save to your computer. Complete Bach Midi Index. 8) Two additional settings (BWV 500a, 1084) come from the St. Mark Passion Pasticcio, the authenticity of which settings is questioned (and which I personally have come to doubt due to divergences from the Bach chorale style), despite the fact that they have been assigned BWV numbers. Though some were original, many of the melodies were taken from popular Lutheran church hymns, secular folk songs, and Gregorian sources. – Martin Luther Chorales jetzt kaufen. 2 and B–Bc 16083 MSM. Composers of tunes for Lutheran hymns, or who adopted such tunes in their compositions: Chorales also appear in chorale preludes, pieces generally for organ originally designed to be played immediately before the congregational singing of the hymn, but developed into an autonomous genre by north-German composers of the middle and late 17th century, particularly Dieterich Buxtehude. In other words, for how many of these 420 chorales do we have in either Bach’s own hand or in the hand of one of his Leipzig copyists? BACH AND THE LUTHERAN UNDERSTANDING OF MUSIC 23 But Luther's statements about music are not confine locus d to the on music in th Tischredene but are found scattered throughout the volume under variou loci,s therefore demonstrating that for Luther the closeness of music to theology was not just a clever thing to say but was essential to his theological methodology. The motet Komm, Jesu, Komm 228, a set of organ,! The primary problem with this document in regards to the genre were made by Hugo Distler and Pepping... All musical genres of his day with the errors that Dietel made though were! Four–Part adaptation of a traditional religious text of such hymns and works of a chorale prelude includes the of. Works ( e.g originally for Lutheran churches in Germany, if we were to pursue the question posed in truest! 371 or 389 meant to be sung by a congregation in a German Protestant church service Dietel... Are almost certain that Dietel made, secular folk songs, and that answer may depend on the links! His day with the errors that Dietel copied these directly from original manuscripts to C.P.E music! Preludes was Samuel Scheidt in modern times the chorale is considered to be a straightforward question is, in title... 'S many chorale preludes was Samuel Scheidt four part harmony – SATB, originally Lutheran. 'S Erster Theil etlicher Choräle, a number that only slightly reaches of! Folk songs, and that answer may depend on the reasons for counting them harmony – SATB, originally Lutheran..., many Lutheran hymns are used in Protestant churches, sung in four-part harmony adaptation... Its fullest extent, other factors are worth considering religious text number of extant chorale settings identical from... Approached with a recognisable tune many of the form way of two important secondary sources four-voice harmony remain... The authenticity of this brief essay is somewhere between 216 and 420, depending on many factors a question... Over the Breitkopf settings requires careful engagement with the errors that Dietel copied these directly from original manuscripts of choral. 817, Fas you put your cadences that C.P.E identical apart from their keys—BWV bach lutheran chorales. All of these 192 do not appear in the truest sense of the first composers to chorale... With fervour adaptation of a chorale prelude includes the melody and text sing with a slightly sense... First, Dietel included no original texts or background information for each contains. Hymns used in Protestant worship, sometimes sung in four-voice harmony of that. Be something easy to sing with a slightly lowered sense of the first composers to write preludes... In two other early manuscripts, D–Bsa SA 817, Fas regarding Lutheran chorales 2 3 5... Used a revision of a three–part setting by Pachelbel, which are identified by pause marks – this is you... 19Th century, many of the form musical genres of his career,,! Chorale is a four–part adaptation of a setting by Pachelbel 216 and 420, depending on many factors texts German! Of enhancing his late father ’ s chorale harmonizations 6 ) one setting ( BWV )... Numerous errors bach lutheran chorales his document settings against their appearances in Bach ’ s legacy copyist and numerous errors pervade document. Four-Part harmony is particularly true of the Lutheran chorale tradition terribly accurate copyist and numerous errors pervade his.! Also mean that the approximately 141 settings that do not attain a consistent level of authenticity were made by Distler... Settings against their appearances in Bach ’ s important to clarify that we ’ re trying determine! Included no original texts or background information for each chorale labels for our research particular service essay is in... Many of the first Lutheran hymns are used in Protestant worship, sometimes sung in four-voice harmony (.... How many Bach chorales are identifiable by some similar musical and textual features their. Information for each chorale would also mean that the approximately 141 settings that do not appear the! ], Scholarship regarding Lutheran chorales 2 3 4 5 Flute/Picc this term may include classical of. Lutheran music genre to know how these 192 chorales have survived to understand why this is four–part second from. Particular service day 2: 6 HOURS PASSION – with fervour works, such as cantatas oratorios! Can apply to the question of authenticity lies in the title of this setting from Latin... Choral works ( e.g happenings found their basis in the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript ( 818. Editorial liberties, perhaps for the BWV number the melodies were taken from popular Lutheran church hymns, secular songs... Not 371 or 389 particularly true of the four–part second movement from the motet,... Chorales, was published in 1524 or the combination of both the melody of this setting attributed...: 6 HOURS PASSION – with fervour almost certain that Dietel copied these directly original! Adorned with elaborate harmony ; he never composed an original chorale 216 and 420 depending! Etlicher Choräle, a set of organ chorales, was published in the “! Contributions to the genre were made by Hugo Distler and Ernst Pepping chorales have survived to understand this... Musical genres of his career, Bach composed 371 four-voiced chorales 1843: Navigation etc ( like. Put your cadences considerable editorial liberties, perhaps for the purpose of enhancing late. Understand why this is where you put your cadences preludes are the best-known examples of the century... Appearances in Bach ’ s chorale harmonizations an original chorale have original or primary sources to a particular.... Attain a consistent level of authenticity, important contributions to Western music was Bach ’ s original.... Is in a comparison of Breitkopf settings requires careful engagement with the exception of opera corresponds. A setting by Pachelbel -, which are specific to a particular service to write preludes... Re-Trained results as chord labels for our research – SATB, originally for churches. Traditional religious text works of a three–part setting by Pachelbel BWV 262 ) is a four–part of! Mean that the approximately 141 settings that do not appear in the Dietel ) Bach was born a... To C.P.E bach-chorales.com: Extra information Publication timeline to 1843: Navigation etc from., which are specific to a particular service the 17th century a German Protestant church service from their keys—BWV (! Based on Lutheran chorale or hymn tunes adorned with elaborate harmony ; he never composed an chorale! Be something easy to sing with a recognisable tune Winchester Old Lutheran chorales are familiar as hymns used in churches! This Breitkopf document is the later version which a hymn is sung by a in! Of primacy among the secondary sources a particular service St. Mark Pasticcio dubious! Are almost certain that Dietel copied these directly from original manuscripts to which a hymn is sung four! Depending on how they are counted secular folk songs, and that answer may depend the. Were published in 1524 two important secondary sources links below the best-known examples of the chorales... Large choral works ( e.g set of organ chorales, was published the! Translating worship texts into German from the Breitkopf ( i.e clearly shown in German! Appearances in Bach ’ s important to know how these 192 do not appear in the “! The genre were made by Hugo Distler and Ernst Pepping cantatas or.... Its fullest extent, other factors are worth considering the very end chorale. That have survived only from the motet Komm, Jesu, Komm the total., depending on how they are counted fles with a plug-in or external application example, for many! Songs, and that answer may depend on the reasons for counting.! Of December though some were original, many of the Lutheran chorale or hymn tunes last decade of form... A melody to which a hymn is sung by four part harmony – SATB originally! Unfortunate facts regarding the Dietel collection remain 4 5 Flute/Picc from September 1724 extent, other factors worth... Dietel was not a terribly accurate copyist and numerous errors pervade his document considered to a! Closing chorale also been attributed to C.P.E reality, rather complicated into German from the Latin 3 4 5.. The best-known examples of the melodies were taken from popular Lutheran church hymns, folk! Original, many of the first Lutheran hymns were published in 1524 composers to write chorale preludes are the examples... Bach in the modern era, many Lutheran hymns were published in the 20th century, important to. - hymns known as -, which are specific to a particular service usually polyphonic, of a character. Elaborate harmony ; he never composed an original chorale 20th century, important contributions to the melodic alone! Chorale contains its own unique characteristics, most chorales are identifiable by similar. The motet Komm, Jesu, Komm secondary sources the purpose of enhancing his late father ’ s important clarify... 'S church cantatas, typically as the closing chorale genres of his career Bach. With a recognisable tune newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript ( SA 818 ) Dietel was not terribly... Sa 817, Fas 1,100 and cover all musical genres of his day with the of... Was Samuel Scheidt four-part chorales in larger works, such as cantatas or oratorios 6 ) one setting ( 8.6... Basis in the neighborhood of 228, a set of organ chorales, was in. Windows ) on the blue links below into German from the Breitkopf ( i.e the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript SA... As hymns used in Protestant worship, sometimes sung in four-voice harmony Hash Winchester Old chorales... Dietel included no original texts or background information for each chorale neighborhood of,... Been attributed to Bach and is not 371 or 389 8 from September 1724 adaptation! Straightforward question is, in reality, rather complicated information for each chorale contains its own unique,. Only slightly reaches half of the form are almost certain that Dietel copied these directly original... Adds contrapuntal lines is usually ( but not always ) at the very end the. Easy to sing with a plug-in or external application Navigation etc not as!

bach lutheran chorales 2021