The traditional chronology, as codified by Varro, allots 243 years for their reigns, an average of almost 35 years, which, since the work of Barthold Georg Niebuhr, has been generally discounted by modern scholarship. The Roman Paenula. The Socialist party (PSI), led by Bettino Craxi, became more and more critical of the communists and of the Soviet Union; Craxi himself pushed in favour of US president Ronald Reagan's positioning of Pershing II missiles in Italy. , In the mid-1st century BCE, the Republic faced a period of political crisis and social unrest. " James Sadkovich gives the most charitable interpretation of Italian failures, blaming inferior equipment, overextension, and inter-service rivalries. Later, during the 14th century, the Polish kingdom reached its peak under the rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty. The final Allied victory over the Axis in Italy did not come until the spring offensive of 1945, after Allied troops had breached the Gothic Line, leading to the surrender of German and Fascist forces in Italy on 2 May shortly before Germany finally surrendered ending World War II in Europe on 8 May. The Church especially endorsed foreign policies such as support for the anti-Communist side in the Spanish Civil War, and support for the conquest of Ethiopia. Depretis began his term as Prime Minister by initiating an experimental political idea called Trasformismo (transformism). Italy joined the Marshall Plan (ERP) and NATO. Denis Mack Smith's classic Italy: a Modern History (University of Michigan Press Ann Arbor, new edn, 1968), recently revised and updated and re-issued as Modern Italy: a Political History (Yale University Press: New Haven and London, 1997) remains a standard work in Italy and the UK and is still to be found on numerous Italian bookshelves. arranged in chronological order with the ability to search and sort by year, month and day. Nationalists advocated Italy's domination of the Mediterranean Sea by occupying Greece as well as the Adriatic coastal region of Dalmatia but no attempts were made. In 1806, he conquered the Kingdom of Naples and granted it to his brother and then (from 1808) to Joachim Murat, along with marrying his sisters Elisa and Paolina off to the princes of Massa-Carrara and Guastalla.  At this point, Mussolini had little choice but to join Hitler in international politics, thus he reluctantly abandoned its support of Austrian independence. A more recent study has suggested a Near Eastern origin. With the main working-class Socialist party reluctant to support the war effort, strikes were frequent and cooperation was minimal, especially in the Socialist strongholds of Piedmont and Lombardy. Accounts of Renaissance literature usually begin with Petrarch (best known for the elegantly polished vernacular sonnet sequence of Il Canzoniere and for the book collecting that he initiated) and his friend and contemporary Giovanni Boccaccio (author of The Decameron). In 1809, Bonaparte occupied Rome, for contrasts with the pope, who had excommunicated him, and to maintain his own state efficiently, exiling the Pope first to Savona and then to France. Lake Garda is the largest lake in Italy. In 1805, he formed the Kingdom of Italy, with himself as king and his stepson as viceroy. the Hebraic insurrection in Judea) (70) and brief civil wars (e.g. Odoacer's rule came to an end when the Ostrogoths, under the leadership of Theodoric, conquered Italy. Presidentes de la URSS durante la Guerra Fría (1945-1991) Technology in the 1950's. Decades later, the armies of Eastern Emperor Justinian entered Italy with the goal of re-establishing imperial Roman rule, which led to the Gothic War that devastated the whole country with famine and epidemics. The Germans brought Mussolini to northern Italy where he set up a Fascist puppet state, the Italian Social Republic. In 2001, the centre-right formed the government and Silvio Berlusconi was able to regain power and keep it for a complete five-year mandate, becoming the longest government in post-war Italy. The Remedello culture took over the Po Valley. Comparative History, Political, Military, Art, Science, Literature, Religion, Philosophy. Among ancient populations, ancient Etruscans are found to be closest to a Neolithic population from Central Europe.. His government, in loss of popularity, was anyway sacked by the end of support from centrist MPs led by Clemente Mastella. To do this, he opposed German plans to annex Austria after the assassination of Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, and promised the Austrians military support if Germany were to interfere. Mussolini felt obliged to sign the pact in spite of his own concerns that Italy could not fight a war in the near future. The circumstances of its destruction preserved Pompeii’s remains as a unique document of Greco-Roman life. The main hypotheses are that they are indigenous, probably stemming from the Villanovan culture, or that they are the result of invasion from the north or the Near East. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory. Maps based on vector database. The … It was shocking the result of the anti-establishment Five Star Movement, founded by the former comedian Beppe Grillo, which gain 25.5% of votes, becoming the first party in the country. The Fascist regime held negative relations with Yugoslavia, as it continued to claim Dalmatia. In October 1922, Mussolini took advantage of a general strike to announce his demands to the Italian government to give the Fascist Party political power or face a coup. Generally speaking, Proto-Villanovan settlements were centered in the northern-central part of the peninsula. Dauntless Jaunter started as a world travel blog, but we strive to offer much more than just travel stories. Italy's urban population fell in half, ransoms paid to the invaders and emergency taxes drained the finances. He decided to include Fascists on his electoral list for 1921 elections. Many leading revolutionaries wanted a republic, but eventually it was a king and his chief minister who had the power to unite the Italian states as a monarchy. Hitler had to intervene with the sending of the Afrika Korps of General Erwin Rommel, that was the mainstay in the North African campaign. Mercenaries were also a constant threat to their employers; if not paid, they often turned on their patron. This Spanish history timeline or chronological history of Spain lets you look for specific dates and see what was happening in Spain at that time. It has been argued that this cultural rebirth was fuelled by massive rediscoveries of ancient texts that had been forgotten for centuries by Western civilization, hidden in monastic libraries or in the Islamic world, as well as the translations of Greek and Arabic texts into Latin. In 2010, Berlusconi's party saw the splintering of Gianfranco Fini's new faction, which formed a parliamentary group and voted against him in a no-confidence vote on 14 December 2010. The Republic saw its fall after the assassination of Dictator Julius Caesar. The history of the world isn’t easily condensed, but the timeline here does a good job of hitting the high notes and most significant events of roughly 4,000 years from the beginnings of Hinduism to the freeing of Nelson Mandela. The General Elections of 1946, held at the same time as the Constitutional Referendum, elected 556 members of a Constituent Assembly, of which 207 were Christian Democrats, 115 Socialists and 104 Communists. The Germans, often helped by Fascists, committed several atrocities against Italian civilians in occupied zones, such as the Ardeatine massacre and the Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre. , Many large firms expanded dramatically. On land, these wars were primarily fought by armies of mercenaries known as condottieri, bands of soldiers drawn from around Europe, but especially Germany and Switzerland, led largely by Italian captains. As the Allies advanced north, they encountered increasingly difficult terrain, as mountains offered excellent defensive position to Axis forces. This led the Etruscans to ally themselves with the Carthaginians, whose interests also collided with the Greeks.  In July 1943, the Allies invaded Sicily in an effort to knock Italy out of the war and establish a foothold in Europe. , Towards the end of the 2nd century BCE, a huge migration of Germanic tribes took place, led by the Cimbri and the Teutones.  The Jewish people never recovered until the creation of the state of Israel in 1948.. The south, at the same time, was overpopulated, forcing millions of people to search for a better life abroad. Mussolini was a World War I veteran, who had worked for the Socialist newspapers before the war but then broke off due to his pro-war stance and established his new Nationalist organization, Fasci di Combattimento.  Of course, there had to be some basis for singling out the South like Italy did. The Palatine Hill and hills surrounding it presented easily defensible positions in the wide fertile plain surrounding them. The victory against Austria allowed Italy to annex Venice. Also during this period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and Massalia (Marseille) in Gaul. After initial success the war took a turn for the worse and the Kingdom of Sardinia lost. Italy proved unable to prosecute the war effectively, as fighting raged for three years on a very narrow front along the Isonzo River, where the Austrians held the high ground. It took control of Somalia and Eritrea. The county of Savoy expanded its territory into the peninsula in the late Middle Ages, while Florence developed into a highly organized commercial and financial city-state, becoming for many centuries the European capital of silk, wool, banking and jewelry. The Fascist regime engaged in interventionist foreign policy in Europe. Some inscriptions in a similar language have been found on the Aegean island of Lemnos.  Mussolini and the leading fascists were atheists but they recognized the opportunity of warmer relations with Italy's large Catholic element. The small territorial gains from Austria were not enough to compensate for the war's terrible costs; other countries especially Poland and Yugoslavia received much more and Italy felt cheated. Fast and free shipping free … , In 53 BCE, the Triumvirate disintegrated at Crassus' death. Scarica . More than 51,000 people had died worldwide. Inspired by the principles of the French Revolution, its members were mainly drawn from the middle class and intellectuals. Hitler proceeded with the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria, in 1938. If it became obvious that a state was entirely dependent on mercenaries, the temptation was great for the mercenaries to take over the running of it themselves—this occurred on a number of occasions.. In June 1945 Bonomi was in turn replaced by Ferruccio Parri, who in turn gave way to Alcide de Gasperi on 4 December 1945. The Italian Navy committed 91 warships and submarines and sank 72,800 tons of Republican and neutral shipping. The ERP was one of the main ways that this modernization was operationalized. Learn more about Pompeii, including its history and excavations. It is widely accepted that Etruscans spoke a non-Indo-European language. The first part of the Renaissance saw almost constant warfare on land and sea as the city-states vied for preeminence. Depretis' goals included widening suffrage in 1882 and increasing the tax intake from Italians by expanding the minimum requirements of who could pay taxes and the creation of a new electoral system called which resulted in large numbers of inexperienced deputies in the Italian parliament. Venice proved to be a more powerful adversary, and with the decline of Genoese power during the 15th century Venice became pre-eminent on the seas. Hesitance remained from the King and military commander Pietro Badoglio who warned Mussolini that Italy had too few tanks, armoured vehicles, and aircraft available to be able to carry out a long-term war and Badoglio told Mussolini "It is suicide" for Italy to get involved in the European conflict. The first government of Depretis collapsed after his dismissal of his Interior Minister, and ended with his resignation in 1877. Italy's political arena was sharply divided between broad camps of left and right which created frequent deadlock and attempts to preserve governments, which led to instances such as conservative Prime Minister Marco Minghetti enacting economic reforms to appease the opposition such as the nationalization of railways. in Ute Planert, ed., This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 14:05. Reports from around Italy showed the people feared war, and cared little about territorial gains. 753 B.C. Its forces had "more than their share of handicaps. B.C. 800 BCE. In 1911, Giovanni Giolitti's government sent forces to occupy Libya and declared war on the Ottoman Empire which held Libya. This decision angered the Fascist regime. THE CAPITOLINE SHE-WOLP. MacGregor Knox says the explanation, "was first and foremost a failure of Italy's military culture and military institutions.  In 1957, Italy was a founding member of the European Economic Community, which later transformed into the European Union (EU). A warrior and mariner people, the ancient Sardinians held flourishing trades with the other Mediterranean peoples. Subsequently, beating off Austrian counterattacks and continuing to advance, he arrived in the Veneto in 1797. Rome led the federation of the Italic peoples, and later dominated Western Europe, Northern Africa, and the Near East. In 1870 Italy conquers Rome and declares Rome its capital. Later, the Phoenicians would do the same. Meanwhile, Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities.  Garibaldi led the Italian republican drive for unification in southern Italy, but the northern Italian monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, also had the ambition of establishing a united Italian state. Industrial wages kept pace but not wages for farm workers.  After Fascism's failure, the United States offered a vision of modernization that was unprecedented in its power, internationalism, and invitation to emulation. The king of Italy was gunned down by an anarchist from New Jersey, Gaetano Bresci on July 29, 1900, at Monza, Italy. The new society, whose motto was "God and the People," sought the unification of Italy. A chronology of key events: 1861 - Italy becomes a nation-state under King Victor Emmanuel II. Mussolini sought to ensure that Nazi Germany would not become hegemonic in Europe. Giolitti believed that the Fascists could be toned down and used to protect the monarchy from the socialists. 32. Mussolini later supported German claims on Sudetenland, a province of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, at the Munich Conference. The path to unification and modernization created a divide between Northern and Southern Italy. Officially, the government was republican, but Augustus assumed absolute powers. The Italian general election, 1948 saw a landslide victory for Christian Democrats, that dominated the system for the following forty years. The Allies organized some royalist Italian troops into the Italian Co-Belligerent Army, while troops loyal to Mussolini continued to fight alongside Nazi Germany in the Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano, the National Republican Army. 88 to B.C. 600 BC. Effectively, in spite of Italy having given birth to some great explorers such as Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci and Giovanni da Verrazzano, the discovery of the New World undermined the importance of Venice and other Italian ports as commercial hubs by shifting Europe's center of gravity westward towards the Atlantic. [nb 1]. Byzantine costume history. On land, decades of fighting saw Florence, Milan and Venice emerge as the dominant players, and these three powers finally set aside their differences and agreed to the Peace of Lodi in 1454, which saw relative calm brought to the region for the first time in centuries.  The Italian Renaissance spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, and art with the start of the modern era. Kindle Edition. The highest mountain peak in Italy is Monte Bianco, better known as Mont Blanc, which is 4 807 m or 15 776 ft. high. Rural folk saw war is a disaster, like drought, famine or plague. Other articles where History of Italy is discussed: Italy: Italy in the early Middle Ages: The Roman Empire was an international political system in which Italy was only a part, though an important part. The Romans then took up arms and drove the Gauls back, led by Camillus. , Around 540 BCE, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Italy Timeline.  This treaty stipulated that Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance and join the enemy, by declaring war against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, in exchange for territories (Istria and Dalmatia) at war's end, upon which the Kingdom of Italy held claims. Carpanetto, Dino, and Giuseppe Ricuperati. Some of them have been discovered in Etruscan tombs, suggesting a strong relationship between the two peoples. The Fascists rejected Giolitti's offers and joined with socialists in bringing down his government.. Florence took Pisa in 1406, Venice captured Padua and Verona, while the Duchy of Milan annexed a number of nearby areas including Pavia and Parma. American History in Movies. New Tablet of Memory; or, Chronicle of Remarkable Events. The society, however, continued to exist and was at the root of many of the political disturbances in Italy from 1820 until after unification. Italy marched in to take over the Papal State. Church records can be immensely helpful in your Italian genealogy research. They set up colonies along the coast of southern Italy and on the island of Sicily. The six founding countries are Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. , German General Erwin Rommel praised the Italians on several occasions, describing their as "extraordinary, courageous, disciplined, but badly commanded and equipped. Soccer History Timeline - the most important events in soccer history from its origin to the present time. Louis Heilprin. During that time Rome grew to rule much of Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Mussolini and Adolf Hitler first met in June 1934, as the issue of Austrian independence was in crisis. The most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, which was adopted by the Etruscans; the Old Italic alphabet subsequently evolved into the Latin alphabet, which became the most widely used alphabet in the world. In Italy, the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. 1940 – Italian Start of WWII, Italy invades Greece from occupied Albania. In the 11th century, trade slowly recovered as the cities started to grow again. As Tangentopoli was under a set of judicial investigations by the name of Mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands"), voters demanded political, economic, and ethical reforms. A TIMELINE OF THE HISTORY OF ITALY. Most politicians, and indeed most Italians opposed the war, including most Catholics. " Norman Polmar and Thomas B. Allen argue that "the Regia Aeronautica failed to perform effectively in modern conflict. The old prevailing vision of the country's industrial prospects had been rooted in traditional ideas of craftsmanship, frugality and thrift, which stood in contrast to the dynamism seen in automobiles and fashion, anxious to leave behind the protectionism of the Fascist era and take advantage of the opportunities offered by rapidly expanding world trade. Codex Judaica: Chronological Index of Jewish History, Covering 5,764 Years of Biblical, Talmudic & Post-Talmudic History Máttis Kantor Zichron Press , 2005 - Jews - 393 pages Beginning of the Etruscan civilization in Italy. Both radical and conservative forces in the Italian parliament demanded that the government investigate how to improve agriculture in Italy. 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