whale-road (plural whale-roads) (obsolete, poetic) The sea, the ocean.1907, John Gibb, on Beowulf, published in The Children's Hour, volume 4, page 3: […] and his name was called Scyld.He grew to man's estate, and became a mighty king, and subdued the peoples under him. Results vary considerably among them, but there is general agreement on a number of key correlations:[30][31] a) the wealthier and the larger the family is the more cars they own and the more they drive, b) the farther away a family lives from the city centre and the fewer the jobs in the vicinity plus a slow bus service the more they drive, and c) street patterns may add a 10% length to local trips but the total VKTs are affected more by the "macro" urban than the "micro" neighbourhood structure. It was in the United Kingdom that the cul-de-sac street type was first legislated into use, with the Hampstead Garden Suburb Act 1906. All the neighboring peoples across the … approach. Both of these phenomena occur naturally on a cul-de-sac street as does social networking. End Road Work Sign Details: End Road Work Sign is manufactured on durable rust-proof .080" aluminum; Pre-punched 3/8" mounting holes in top and bottom for easy installation. The city records, which go back to the 1960s, show only a couple of "no exit" signs once existing near the approaches to the Midtown Tunnel, and which are no longer there. Written and produced by Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, Antonio "L.A." Reid and Daryl Simmons. "..."narrowness and enclosure and intimacy bring a feeling of safety to Roslyn Place... “Stay on our street” is all the kids have to know. A frontage road is a deviation from a highway and gives indirect access to abutting property along a freeway. In effect, this removes the discontinuity aspect for these modes of transport. Conversely, early 1950s suburban developments that were laid out on a grid exhibit similar low densities. In 1954, the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation published its own guidelines[8] in which the cul-de-sac was strongly recommended for local streets and, as the FHA in the US, used its lending power to see its inclusion in development plans. [citation needed] New York City has favored "dead end" since at least the 1930s, when Sidney Kingsley used the phrase to title his Broadway play about poor, tough East Side youths with lives of little promise, in contrast to the dead-end streets of the nearby Sutton Place neighborhood. A survey of residents on three types of streets: cul-de-sac, loop, and through (grid) recorded their preferences among these types. Planning theorists have suggested the use alternatives to culs-de-sac. Its application retains the dead end's primary function as a non-through road, but establishes complete pedestrian and bicycle network connectivity. Right image: State limit 100 applies, drive to … Proponents of culs-de-sac and gated communities have in turn countered that the reduction in through traffic makes any "stranger" much more recognisable in the closed local environment and thus reduces crime danger. 1. Loss of orientation and sense of direction is also a common experience in older cities with cul-de-sac streets (Medina of Arab cities or Mediterranean hill towns) as well as in cities with highly irregular block geometries and sizes and corresponding street alignments that produce a labyrinthine effect. In this pattern, there are only a few roads (relative to the number of cul-de-sac streets) leading out of the subdivision and into other subdivisions or onto major roads. The expression cul-de-sac comes from French, where it originally meant "bottom of a sack". As traffic volumes increase and as cities decide to remove or reduce traffic on specific streets of central areas, streets are closed off using bollards or landscaping thus creating new, originally unplanned dead ends and producing a new, functional blend of the inherited grid with newer street types. The most famous Roman road is the Appian Way (Via Appia) between Rome and Capua, built by the censor Appius Claudius (later, known as Ap.Claudius Caecus 'blind') in 312 B.C., site of his descendant Clodius Pulcher's murder. Did You Know? In general, a “travel lane” is 9 – 10 feet, so the most narrow requirements are 18 – 20 feet of pavement. (Similarly, French existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre titled a play about three damned sinners, Huis Clos, translated into English as "No Exit".) This increases fuel consumption and vehicle emissions and has negative effects on health by reducing walking and cycling rates. Private Roads: A street or route that is designated by a public authority to accommodate a person or a group of people. Explore Thesaurus 2. something that prevents … [14] end of the road This slang phrase, as a free translation from Hebrew, is used to describe a great and wonderful thing. ‘if the lawsuit is not dropped it could be the end of the road for the publisher’ More example sentences ‘A meeting will take place today to decide if it is the end of the road … Learn more. [28] Related research in the United States by Richard Jackson has shown that people in car-based (cul-de-sac heavy) communities weigh on average 6 pounds (2.7 kg) more than those in traditional towns (with open grid networks).[28]. In most of the states in the … The village is laid out with straight streets that intersect at right angles, akin to a grid but irregular. [50] "Cul-de-sac" is also used metaphorically to mean a line of thought or action that leads nowhere. English [] Etymology []. Residential area street configuration can assist its emergence only by reducing through traffic and increasing local pedestrian movement; a design goal for which connected cul-de-sac and looped streets are suited. The studies recommend the use of the cul-de-sac or strong traffic calming measures. Only 13% of grid street residents preferred their own type and 54% would choose a cul-de-sac. [12] Since the 1960s, the pattern has been the dominant road network structure of suburbs and exurbs in the United States, Canada, and Australia. specifications for highway use. The use of culs-de-sac reduces the amount of car traffic on residential streets within the subdivision, thus reducing noise, air pollution and the probability of accidents. Culs-de-sac reduce perceived danger from traffic, thereby encouraging more outdoor play. It concluded that the non-hierarchical, traditional layout generally shows lower peak speed and shorter, more frequent intersection delays than the hierarchical pattern. When culs-de-sac are interconnected with foot and bike paths, as for example in Vauban, Freiburg and Village Homes in Davis, California, they can increase active modes of mobility among their residents.[21]. A few years before the (virtually) gang warfare that led to Clodius' death, the road was the site of the crucifixion of the followers of Spartacus when the … Definition of NO THROUGH ROAD (noun): road that is closed at one end; something that prevents someone from entering ... Word Forms +-singular: no through road: plural: no through roads: DEFINITIONS 2. Most notably, Christopher Alexander et al., in his "A Pattern Language" 1977 book (pattern #49) suggests the use of looped local roads which do not abruptly stop. The term "dead end" is understood in all varieties of English, but the official terminology and traffic signs include many different alternatives. 5. A dead end, also known as a cul-de-sac (/ˈkʌldəsæk, ˈkʊl-/,[1] from French for 'bag-bottom'[2]), no through road or no exit road, is a street with only one inlet or outlet. In the UK, their prior existence is implied by the Public Health Act 1875 which banned their use in new developments. As for permeability, it suggests that residential areas should be permeable enough to allow movement in all directions but no more. The terms 'cul-de-sac' and 'dead end' have the same senses as in Australia. Conversely, transforming existing streets that are part of a grid plan into permeable, linked culs-de-sac, as was done in Berkeley, California, and Vancouver, British Columbia, is physically and administratively easy due to the public ownership of the street right-of-way. School buses can also have a hard time turning around, which means that children who live in a cul-de-sac must often walk to a bus stop on a main through road. "Politics and the English Language". See Synonyms at intention. Dead ends are created in urban planning to limit through-traffic in residential areas. [45] It was first used in English in anatomy (since 1738). End Road Work Sign is manufactured on durable rust-proof .080" aluminum. U.S. Federal Highway Administration rules state: "The Dead End sign may be used at the entrance of a single road or street that terminates in a dead end or cul-de-sac. The average car or pickup is 5.5 – 6.5 feet wide, and dump trucks and school buses are 7 feet. High Intensity Prismatic Reflective on .080" Aluminum, Fluorescent Orange Prismatic Reflective on .080" Aluminum. More generally, the New Urbanism movement has offered criticism of the cul-de-sac and crescent (loop) street types not intended to network with each other. 2. This design feature reflects the predominance of pedestrian movement for local trips at the turn of the 20th century, and presages the current planning priority for increased pedestrian accessibility. Even in the 21st century, developments rarely achieve densities above 5 to 7 units per acre (12 to 17 per hectare) in the suburbs. It is argued that, since only very few of all non-locals passing through the area are potential criminals, increased traffic should increase rather than decrease safety.[32]. A new system for organizing connected, permeable culs-de-sac into complete neighbourhoods, the fused grid, has been developed by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. An extensive analysis of the research evidence by TRB,[29] however, shows only an association between the built environment and physical activity levels, not causal connections. The study looked at, among others, a) dwelling types, b) unit density (site density) c) movement on the street, d) culs-de-sac or grids, and e) the permeability of a residential area. The same opinion is expressed by an earlier thinker, Aristotle, when he criticized the Hippodamian grid:[5]. [49], The phrase "No Exit" is also preferred for Chicago signs, although "dead end" is still used there. The traditional pattern is not as friendly to the long trips as the hierarchical but friendlier to short trips. [citation needed], Dead-end streets also appeared during the classical period of Athens and Rome. [11] That could be because there is considerably less passing traffic, resulting in less noise and reduced actual or perceived risk, increasing the sense of tranquility. Simple Curve: A simple curve changes direction but does not cross itself while changing direction. At one end of the chain there will be a free 3' … In addition, there are "middle ground" alternatives between prohibiting culs-de-sac and mandating them. The impermeable cul-de-sac not only discourages walking and biking but also increases the length of car trips by the circuitous geometry of the dendrite network structure of which it is a part. Closed curve: A closed curve, has no end points and encloses an area (or a region). [48] The term "cul-de-sac" generally only refers to a reasonably short street with a bulbous end, or even only to the end portion. Neighbourhoods can be defined by geographic boundaries but more often it is shared ethnic, socioeconomic and cultural characteristics that create social cohesion irrespective of apparent physical "boundaries." the end of the road the point where someone or something can no longer continue or survive in a situation The administration realizes now that they've come to the end of the road of their policy. 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